Medieval Feudalism — Author Generated in Stable Diffusion

Self Custody: Relinquishing Echoes of the Feudal System

The Quest for Digital Sovereignty

7 min readOct 8, 2023


In the annals of history, the feudal system stands out as a period where personal ownership was more a matter of allegiance than autonomy.

Feudalism dominated medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries, and was centered around a strict social hierarchy. Peasants and serfs occupied the bottom rungs, forced to live and work on land owned by feudal lords. In return for toiling on the lord’s estate, serfs were granted basic protection and the right to subsistence living. The serfs owned neither the land they cultivated nor the fruits of their labor. The feudal contract was one of allegiance rather than autonomy or ownership.

“The serf is a man without rights, a chattel without a soul.” — Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, from Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace

The parallels to today’s digital landscape ring uncannily accurate. While the context is different, the core dynamic of large entities — exerting control over users’ digital lives — mirrors the manorial relationship between lord and serf.